Time Line


Grishko® Dance & Ballet Time Line

1462 Italy Domenico di Piacenza writes first known treatise on dance
1489 Italy Bergonzio di Botta presents his dinner Ballet at Tortona
1494 Italy Charles II of of France invades Italy
1581 France Belgiojoso stages Le Ballet Comique de la Reine
1581 Italy Fabrizio Caroso publishes Il Ballarino
1583 France Catherine de Medici marries Henry II of France
1584 Italy Teatro d’Olympico, with proscenium arch stage opens in Verona
1588 France Arbeau publishes Orchesographic, the first French treatise on dance
1600 Central Europe The Liberation of Peace performed in Darmstadt
1604 Italy Cesare Negri publishes Nuovi Inventioni di Balli
1605 UK Johnson begins writing masques (in collaboration with Indigo Jones)
1609 Central Europe First court ballets in Stuttgart
1620 United States Pilgrims land at Plymouth Massachusetts
1634 Scandinavia von Kuckelsom states first Danish ballet de cour
1634 UK Milton writes Comus
1638 Low Countries First theatre opens in Amsterdam
1638 Scandinavia de Beaulieu stages first Swedish ballet de cour
1640 UK last masque, Salmacida Spolia, produced at Whitehall for Charles I
1642 UK Civil War begins
1643 Central Europe First theatre in Poland opens in Royal Palace, Warsaw
1651 France Louis XIV makes first appearance in public as a dancer
1653 France Louis XIV portrays the Rising Sun in Le Ballet Royale de la Nuit
1658 Low Countries First female dancers appear on stage in Amsterdam
1660 UK Restoration of Monarchy
1669 France

Louis XIV estabilishes Academic Royale de la Musique (Paris Opera) Ballet performances move from palace ballroom to proscenium arch theatre. Pierre Beauchamp creates the 5 positions of the feet.

1669 Low Countries First Dutch balletts de cour produced fro William of Orange
1681 France First professional female dancers appear on French stage in Le Triomphe de l’Amour
1689 Russia Accession of Peter the Great
1705 Low Countries Small ballet company established at Theatre sur la Monnai in Brussels
1705 UK Haymarket Theatre opens
1713 France Ballet School attached to Opera
1714 France Duchess of Maine presents mime version of Les Horaces at her Chateau
1716 UK Marie Salle and her brother make debuts at Lincolns Inn Fields under John Rich
1717 Central Europe Taubert writes first German treatise on dance
1717 UK John Weaver presents The Loves of Mars and Venus at Drury Lane
1724 Central Europe First theatre opens in Prague. Opera House opens in Warsaw
1726 Scandinavia Lander takes charge of dancing at theatre in Copenhagen’s Lille Gronnegade
1727 France Salle makes debut at opera
1733 UK Salle’s production of Pygmalion causes a sensation at Lincolns Inn Fields
1735 France Opera Ballet reaches it’s peak with Rameau’s Les Indes Galantes
1737 Italy Teatro San Carlo opens in Naples
1738 Russia Lande founds Imperial Ballet School in St. Petersburg
1739 France La Barabarina astounds Paris with Entrecaht Huit
1742 Central Europe Frederick the Great establishes Royal Opera House in Berlin
1744 Central Europe Hilferding begins to choreograph ballet’s d’action in Vienna. La Barbarina triumphs in Berlin
1748 Scandinavia First Royal Theatre opens on Kongens Nytorv in Copenhagen
1755 UK Garrick invites Noverre to produce Les Fetes Chinoises at Drury Lane
1758 France Noverre produces early ballet d’action Caprices de Galatee in Lyon
1758 Russia Hilferding becomes ballet master in St Petersburg
1759 Central Europe Noverre arrives in Stuttgart
1761 Central Europe Angiolini presents Don Juan
1762 Russia Catherine the Great
1765 Central Europe National Theatre founded in Warsaw
1766 Russia Directorate of Imperial Theatres established to administer ballet, opera and drama. Angiolini succeeds Hilferding
1767 Central Europe Noverre arrives in Vienna
1770 Scandinavia Court Theatre built at Christianborg Castel
1772 France Maximillian Gardet discards his mask at the Opera
1773 Scandinavia Galeotti arrives in Copenhagen
1774 Russia Beccari founds ballet school at Moscow Orphanage
1776 France Noverre appointed ballet master at Opera
1778 Italy La Scala opens in Milan
1781 Scandinavia Antoine Bournonvilled joins Royal Swedish Ballet
1781 UK Noverre appointed ballet master at King’s Theatre
1783 Italy First mention of ballet in Rome
1786 Scandinavia Premier of Galeotti’s The Whims of Cupid and The Ballet Master
1789 France Dauberval produces La Fille Mal Gardee in Bordeaux
1789 France French Revolution begins
1792 Central Europe Ballet school founded in Munich
1793 Central Europe Vigano begins first engagement at Kaertnerthor Theatre in Vienna
1794 Russia Valberkh directs St. Petersberg school in Moscow, Petrovky theatre and school brought into Imperial system
1796 UK Didelot produces Flore et Zephyre
1801 Central Europe Vigano presents The Creatures of Prometheus in Vienna
1801 Russia Didelot arrives in St. Petersburg to direct Bolshoi Theatre
1803 Scandinavia Filippo Taglioni engaged as soloist in Stockholm
1813 Italy Imperiale Regio Accadedmia di Danze established at La Scala Vigano begins staging his ‘choreodrammi’ in Milan
1813 Scandinavia August Bournonvilled dances in public for the first time.
1815 Central Europe Congress of Vienna
1815 Central Europe Horschelt’s Children’s Ballet becomes popular
1818 Central Europe National Theatre opens in Munich
1819 Low Countries Jean Antoine Petipa made first ballet master in Brussels
1821 Central Europe Filippo Taglioni and Barbaja in charge at Kaernerthor Theatre
1824 Central Europe Taglioni family arrives in Stuttgart
1825 Russia Moscow, Bolshoi Theatre opens
1826 UK Blasis appointed choreographer and soloist at King’s Theatre
1829 Scandinavia Bournonvilled appointed Ballet Master at Royal Theatre in Copenhagen
1830 UK Blasis publishes The Code of Terpichore
1837 Italy Blasis appointed director of La Scala Academy
1837 Russia Marie Taglioni arrives in St. Petersburg for the first time
1837 United States Maywood and Lee make debuts in Philadelphia
1839 Russia Delsarte begins most active period as teacher of singing and recitation
1839 Scandinavia Grahn leaves Denmark for international career.
1840 United States Elssler begins triumphal American tour
1841 Scandinavia Marie Taglioni tours Sweden
1841 UK Lumbley hires Perrot for Her Majesty’s Theatre
1842 Russia Christian Johansson accompanies Taglioni to St. Petersburg. Andreianova becomes first Russian Giselle.
1842 Scandinavia Premier of Bournonvilles Napoli
1843 Central Europe Filippo Taglioni directs National Theatre in Warsaw
1844 UK Perrot presents La Esmeralda. Clara Webster dies in fire on stage at Drury Lane
1845 UK Premier of Perrot’s Pas de Quatre
1846 Scandinavia Premier of Selinder’s People of Vaarmland in Stockholm
1848 Russia Elssler takes Russia by storm. Perrot begins work in St. Petersburg
1850 UK Grisi makes last appearance in Western Europe, in Paula Taglioni’s Les Metamorphoses
1856 Central Europe Paul Taglioni becomes ballet master in Berlin
1858 Russia Saint-Leon replaces Perrot
1859 1870 Italy Unification of Italy
1861 Russia Petipa produces The Pharaoh’s Daughter
1861 United States Civil War begins
1866 1871 Central Europe Unification of Germany
1869 Central Europe Opera House opens Ringstrasse in Vienna
1870 Russia Petipa officially named ballet master in St. Petersburg
1871 Low Countries First performance of Coppelia outside France, in Brussels
1872 Low Countries Lucien Petipa made ballet master in Brussels
1877 Scandinavia Bournonville retires.
1879 Scandinavia Beck makes debut with Royal Danish Ballet. First state theatre opens in Helsinki
1881 Italy Manzottie stages Excelsior, one of his earlier ‘colossal’ ballets
1884 Central Europe Hungarian Ballet founded. Budapest Opera House opens
1885 Russia Zucchi first dances in Russia
1887 UK Lanner appointed ballet mistress of Empire Theatre
1890 Russia Checchetti arrives to dance in Sleeping Beauty
1892 Russia Premiere of the Nutcracker
1894 Russia Stepanov’s book on dance notation published
1894 Scandinavia Beck makes director of Royal Danish Ballet
1895 Russia Legnani introduces 32 fouetttes in Swan Lake
1897 UK Genee makes London Debut
1899 1902 UK Boer War
1902 Central Europe Cecchetti Ballet Master at National Theatre Warsaw
1903 Central Europe Allen makes debut in Vienna
1906 Scandinavia Duncan tours Scandinavia
1906 United States Premiere of St Denis’s Radha
1907 United States Genee makes first American tour
1908 Scandinavia Pavlova makes first appearance outside Russia in Stockholm
1909 Scandinavia Premier of Beck’s The Little Mermaid
1909 United States Fornaroli becomes ballet mistress at Metropolitan Opera in New York
1909 United States Duncan returns to USA for first tour
1910 Central Europe Dalcroze establishes school at Hellerau. Von Laban debut in Vienna
1910 UK Pavlova arrives in England
1913 ANZAC Genee tours Australia and New Zealand
1914 Low Countries Gertrude Leistikow begins to introduce modern dance to Holland
1915 Scandinavia Beck retires
1915 United States First Denishawn school opens in Los Angeles
1916 Italy Diaghilev and Massine winter in Rome, prepare Parade and present Les Femmes des Bonne Humeur
1916 UK Astafieva opens school in London
1916 United States Ballet Russes makes first appearance in New York
1917 United States USA enters WWI
1920 Central Europe Wigman opens school in Dresden
1920 Scandinavia De Mare forms Les Ballet Suedois
1920 UK Rambert opens school at Notting Hill Gate. Association of Operatic Dancing (now Royal Academy of Dancing) founded
1920 United States Bolm becomes ballet master of Chicago Civic Opera
1921 Scandinavia Gue appointed ballet master in Helsinki
1922 Italy Mussolini in Power
1922 UK Cecchetti Society founded
1925 Italy Ceccetti returns to Italy to become directore at La Scala
1926 ANZAC Pavlova tours Australia
1926 UK de Valois arrives in London. Ashton presents first work at Lyric Theatre
1926 United States University of Wisconsin offers first degree program in dance
1927 United States Graham opens School of Contemporary Dance
1928 UK Wigman makes London debut
1929 Italy Diaghilev dies in Venice
1930 Scandinavia Lander appointed director of Royal Danish Ballet
1930 UK Camargo Society founded
1931 UK de Valois becomes director of new Vic-Wells Ballet. Rambert begins Ballet Club performances
1932 United States Ted Shawn Male Dancers organized premiere of Primitives Mysteries and The Shakers
1933 Central Europe Hitler in power in Germany
1933 Low Countries Schwezoff establishes ballet school in The Hague
1933 UK Ashton Choreographs Les Rendezvous. Joos and Leeder establish Ballet Joos.
1933 United States Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo begins touring USA. Bolm Helps found San Franciso Opera Ballet
1934 United States Balanchine and Kirstein open School of American Ballet
1935 UK Vic-Wells becomes Sadlers Wells Ballet. Markova-Dolin Ballet formed
1935 United States Premiere of Balanchines’s Serenade
1936 UK Tudor choreographs Jardin aux Lilas at Mercury
1936 United States Kirstein founds Ballet Caravan. Hanya Holm Studio opens in New York
1938 Canada Winnipeg Ballet Club founded in Canada
1938 South America Original Ballet Russe tours South America.
1938 United States Ballet Caravan presents Filling Station and Billy the Kid
1939 Central Europe Germany invades Poland
1939 Low Countries Georgi Ballet founded
1939 UK Ballet Club becomes Ballet Rambert
1939 United States Ballet Theatre founded by Chase and Pleasant. Georgi Ballet tours United States
1941 Central Europe Hanka takes over as ballet mistress at Vienna Opera House
1941 Low Countries Georgi Ballet becomes Amsterdam Opera Ballet
1941 UK Ballet Rambert performs Gore’s Confessional
1941 United States Shawn founds Jocob’s Pillow Dance Festival
1942 United States Premiere of de Mille’s Rodeo
1943 United States Horton opens school in Los Angeles
1944 United States American Ballet Theatre presents Robbin’s Fancy Free
1944 United States Premiere of Graham’s Appalachian Spring
1945 Central Europe Germany surrenders
1945 Low Countries Snoek founds Scapino Ballet
1945 United States Merce Cunningham founds own company
1946 UK Saddler’s Wells Ballet moves to Covent Garden. Ashton premiers Symphonic Variations
1946 United States Balanchine and Kierstein form Ballet Society
1947 Low Countries Ter Weeme forms Ballet der Large Landen
1948 Scandinavia Premier of Lander’s Etude
1948 United States Ballet Society becomes New York City Ballet
1948 United States Halprin opens studio
1949 Low Countries Collins reorganizes Opera Ballet
1949 United States Limon first presents The Moor’s Pavane
1949 United States Sadler’s Wells visits New York
1950 Italy Susannah Negri establishes small company at Teatro Regio in Turin
1950 Scandinavia Lander Leaves Copenhagen. Volkova arrives, annual Ballet Festival begins. Tudor directs Royal Swedish Ballet. Production Miss Julie
1950 UK Markova and Dolin form Festival Ballet
1951 Canada National Ballet of Canada founded in Toronto
1953 Canada Winnipeg Ballet Club becomes Royal Winnipeg Ballet
1953 Scandinavia Skeaping directs Royal Swedish Ballet. Den Norske established
1954 Low Countries Nederlands Ballet established in the Hague
1956 UK Saddler’s Wells becomes Royal Ballet. Fonteyn makes DEE. West forms Western Theatre Ballet in Bristol.
1956 United States Joffrey Ballet established
1958 United States Alvin Ailey American Dance Theatre founded
1959 Low Countries Amsterdam Ballet formed from Opera Ballet and Ballet der Large Landen. Harkavy forms Netherlands Dance Theatre in The Hague
1960 Central Europe Cranko appointed director of Stuttgart Ballet
1960 Italy Carla Fracci forms touring company
1960 Low Countries Bejart forms Ballet of the 20th Century in Brussels
1961 Low Countries National Ballet formed from Amsterdam Ballet and Netherlands Ballet
1962 ANZAC Australian Ballet established
1962 UK Nureyev joins Royal Ballet begins partnership with Fonteyn.
1963 UK Graham appears in London and Edinburgh
1965 Scandinavia Flindt takes over Royal Danish Ballet
1965 UK Ballet Rambert organized into smaller group for experimental ballet
1966 Scandinavia Royal Danish Ballet tours United States
1966 UK London Contemporary Dance Theatre founded
1969 UK Western Theatre Ballet becomes Scottish Theatre Ballet based in Glasgow
1971 Low Countries Bejart presents Nijinsky
1973 Central Europe Neumeier appointed director of Hamburg State Opera Ballet
1973 United States Tharp choreographs Deuce Coupe for Joffrey Ballet
1974 Scandinavia Den Norske Ballet makes first American tour